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Acronimi e sigle

Ormai viviamo in un mondo di sigle ed acronimi (quasi tutti derivanti dalla lingua inglese) e pur utilizzandoli quotidianamente spesso non ne conosciamo il vero significato.
Vi proponiamo quindi una serie di acronimi/sigle utilizzate nel mondo dei microbiologi.


AHU Air Handling Unit  (HVAC)
APA Aseptic Processing Area
APC Aerobic Plate Count
API Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient
ATCC American Type Culture Collection
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
Aw Water Activity
B/F/S Blow-Fill-Seal (see also BFS)
BA/BE Bioavailability/Bioequivalence
BET Bacterial Endotoxin Test
BI Biological Indicator
BPC Bulk Pharmaceutical Chemical
BSC Biological Safety Cabinet
BSL Biological Safety Level (pathogenicity risk)
C of A  or   CoA Certificate of Analysis (also CoA)
CAPA Corrective and Preventative Action
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA)
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CFU Colony Forming Unit
CGMP Current Good Manufacturing Practice
CIP Clean in Place
CoA Certificate of Analysis (also C of A)
CPP Critical Process Parameters
CQA Critical Quality Attributes
D-value Decimal Reduction Time (log-linear kill kinetics)
DI Deionized (water)
DIS Draft Intemational Standard
DIW Deionized Water
DMF Drug Master File
DOE Design of Experiments
DOP Dioctylphthalate
DQ Design Qualification
EA Environmental Assessment
EHS Environmental Health and Safety
ELISA Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
EM Environmental Monitoring
EMA European Medicines Agency (aka EMEA)
EO Ethylene Oxide
EP European Pharmacopoeia
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
FAT Factory Acceptance Testing
FIFO First In, First Out
FMEA Failure Mode Effects Analysis
FMECA Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis
FT-IR Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
FTIR Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
GAMP Good Automated Manufacturing Practices
GCLP Good Control Laboratory Practice (European GMP term)
GDP Good Documentation Practices
GLP Good Laboratory Practice
GMP Good Manufacturing Practice
GPQ Growth Promoting Quality
GPT Growth Promotion Test
HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
HAZOP Hazard Operability Analysis
HEPA High Efficiency Particulate Air filters
HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
ICCCS International Confederation of Contamination Control Societies
IPA Isopropyl Alcohol
IPC In-process Control
IQ Installation Qualification
IR Immediate Release
IV/IVC In vitro / In vivo Correlation
IVD In vitro Diagnostics
IVD-IR/-MR In vitro dissolution-immediate release or modified release products
JP Japanese Pharmacopoeia
LAF Laminar Air Flow
LAL Limulous Amoebocyte Lysate (Bacterial Endotoxin Test)
LOC Lab-on-a-Chip
LOD Limit of Detection
LOQ Limit of Quantification
LRW LAL Reagent Water
LVP Large Volume Parenteral
MAC MacConkey Agar
MACB MacConkey Broth
MALDI-TOF Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Time-of-flight
MCA Medicines Control Agency (UK – obsolete term; see MHRA)
MCTA Microbial Content Test Agar (aka TSALT)
MEA Malt Extract Agar
MF Membrane Filtration
MLT Microbial Limits Test
MPCA Modified Plate Count Agar
MPN Most Probable Number
MRA Mutual Recognition Agreement
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets
MVD Maximum Valid Dilution (LAL Test)
MW Molecular Weight
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NoE Notice of Event
O&M Operation and Maintenance
OOL Out of Limit (or Level) (Environmental Monitoring event)
OOS Out of Specification (e.g., test results)
OOT Out of Tolerance
OOT Out of Trend (Environmental Monitoring event)
OQ Operational Qualification
OSD Oral Solid Dosage Form
PBE/IBE Population Bioequivalence/Individual Bioequivalence
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
PDA Parenteral Drug Association
PDA Potato Dextrose Agar
Ph. Eur. European Pharmacopoeia
PIC/S Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention;
Pharmaceutical Inspection Cooperation Scheme
PM Preventative Maintenance
PO Purchase Order
POU Point of Use
PQ Performance Qualification
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
PVDF Polyvinylidene Fluoride
QA Quality Assurance
QAU Quality Assurance Unit
QbD Quality by Design
QC Quality Control
QMS Quality Management System
QP Qualified Person
qPCR Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction
QRM Quality Risk Management
R2A Reasoner’s Minimal Agar Media for Recovery of Waterborne Microorganisms
RFID Radio Frequency Identification
RMM Rapid Microbiological Method
RO Reverse Osmosis
RODAC Replicate Organism Detection and Counting
ROI Return on Investment
RTD Real Time Datalogger
SAL Sterility Assurance Level
SAS Surface Air System (an active air sampler)
SAT Site Acceptance Testing
SBA Sheep Blood Agar
SCDA Soybean Casein Digest Agar (a.k.a. TSA)
SCDB Soybean Casein Digest Broth (a.k.a. TSB)
SD Standard Deviation
SDA Sabouraud Dextrose Agar
SDB Sabouraud Dextrose Broth
SIP Steam in Place; or Sterilize in Place; or Sanitize in Place
SMEPAC Standardized Measurement of Particulate Airborne Contamination
SOP Standard Operating Procedure
SPC Standard Plate Count
SPC Statistical Process Control
SS Stainless Steel
SVP Small Volume Parenteral
SWFI Sterile Water for Injection
TAMC Total Aerobic Microbial Count
TBD To Be Determined
TC Technical Committee
TNTC Too Numerous to Count
TOC Total Organic Carbon
TQM Total Quality Management
TSA Trypticase Soy Agar (a.k.a. SCDA)
TSALT Trypticase Soy Agar with Lecithin and Tween (aka MCTA)
TSB Trypticase Soy Broth (a.k.a. SCDB)
TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
TVAC Total Viable Aerobic Count
TVC Total Viable Count
TYMC Total Yeast and Mold Count
UF Ultrafiltration
ULPA Ultra-Low Penetration (or Particulate) Air
UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply
URS User Requirement Specification
USP United States Pharmacopeia
UV Ultra-Violet
VBNC Viable But Not Culturable
VHP Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (a.k.a. HPV)
VHPH Vapor phase Hydrogen Peroxide
VMP Validation Master Plan
WFI Water for Injection
WG Working Group
YMM Yeast and Mold Medium

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